29 Dec Describe the genetic basis of HLA type Describe the roles of HLA proteins
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Unless otherwise directed, the information you need to answer the questions below is available from the course materials. Some questions may require information from more than one unit or lesson. Further research is not required.
Answer the questions in your own words, using full sentences.
For each of questions 1?4, select and support the most appropriate response, and explain why each of the incorrect statements is eliminated.
1. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) can carry a human gene into bone marrow cells. A patient received this genetically modified bone marrow, which resulted in production of a required enzyme. This is an example of
a. protein therapy.
b. germline therapy
c. somatic gene therapy
d. retroviral gene therapy
e. in vivo gene therapy (5 marks)
2. A procedure that combines gametes in a culture dish, then eventually transfers the resulting embryo to the female gamete donor?s uterus is
b. intrauterine insemination.
c. surrogate insemination.
e. ICSI. (5 marks)
3. Sequencing of the human genome can reveal
a. mutations that do not alter phenotype.
b. mutations that do not alter genotype.
c. which tissues express a gene.
d. how many genes a person has.
e. epigenetic effects. (5 marks)
4. An inherited mutant p53 allele
a. creates DNA replication errors.
b. causes a Mendelian cancer trait.
c. is an oncogene.
d. raises the risk of cancer.
e. binds to DNA to increase transcription. (5 marks)
5. Match each descriptor or example in the right-hand column to the best term in the left-hand column. Use only one descriptor per term and one term per descriptor. (10 marks)
1. ____ innate immunity a. target specificity
2. ____ PGD b. sequencing
3. ____ MAb c. reverse transcriptase
4. ____ CRISPR d. antibacterial
5. ____ polyclonal response e. exome
6. ____ cDNA f. copy number variants
7. ____ DNA microarray g. antibody diversity
8. ____ liposome h. chromosome defects
9. ____ CMA i. vector
10. ____ EST j. phosphate-sugar backbone
6. Describe the genetic basis of HLA type. Describe the roles of HLA proteins. (6 marks)
7. How is apoptosis involved in T-cell differentiation? Why is this important? (4 marks)
8. You are exposed to a substance that quickly causes an allergic reaction you have never experienced before. What type of antibody is involved in this response? Why does your body have specific antibodies for this allergen? (6 marks)
9. Use all of these terms to describe one or more of the autoimmune disorders identified in Lewis: pleiotropy, genetic heterogeneity, and multifactorial trait. (4 marks)
10. Describe how genome sequencing can be used to reduce the spread of an infection. (6 marks)
11. Cancer cell internal structures, metabolism, and plasma membranes (with their associated proteins) differ from healthy cells. Some of these differences cause the cells to exhibit various characteristics, listed in Table 18.1 of the textbook. Which features of cancer cell plasma membranes, internal structures, and metabolism explain why cancer cells lack contact inhibition, are invasive, and can metastasize? (6 marks)
12. Viruses can cause cancer both directly and indirectly. Describe these two modes, providing examples. (6 marks)
13. The genetic basis of cancer is complex. Choose one of these contributors and describe their effects on the development of cancer. (6 marks)
a. stem cells
b. gatekeeper, driver, and passenger mutations
d. defective tumour-suppressor genes
14. Gene therapy may be used to treat cancer and symptoms resulting from cancer treatment, but it can also cause cancer. (6 marks)
a. Describe a gene therapy used to treat cancer or cancer-treatment symptoms.
b. Describe how gene therapy can cause cancer.
15. Reverse vaccinology identifies antigens that are very specific to the pathogen. These different antigens can then be synthesized and individually tested for their potential in creating immunity and can thus be used as vaccines. Identify DNA technologies and their purposes in the identification and production of these antigens for vaccine use, and describe the process of making individual antigens in large quantities. (6 marks)
16. Lewis quotes a consumer rejecting genetically modified foods as saying ?I will not eat food that contains DNA!? (Lewis 381). Explain the misconception of this statement. (3 marks)
17. Contrast ?genetically modified organisms? with ?transgenic organisms.? Describe a practical and research application of each modification. (5 marks)
A gene therapy for ADA deficiency using stem cells is being tested. Gene therapy for muscular dystrophy uses immature muscle cells. What is the reasoning behind choosing these types of cells for the therapies? Are these therapies likely in vivo or ex vivo? Explain.
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